Extremophilic organisms populate environments with extreme chemical-physical parameters (temperature, pH, pressure, salinity, etc.), considered inhospitable from the anthropocentric point of view.
The study of these organisms is therefore fundamental for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the ability to live in prohibitive conditions, in which most living organisms on earth would not survive.
On the one hand, Antarctica represents a natural laboratory for the study of the evolutionary adaptations of the species that live there and the climatic changes that have influenced polar marine biodiversity.
Thermophilic and hypertemophilic microorganisms, on the other hand, represent a source of stable and active biomolecules in extreme conditions, which can be used for the conversion of biomass into eco-sustainable materials and for the production of renewable energy, with a view to a circular bioeconomy.
Even diatoms, unicellular algae responsible for about a quarter of the oxygen produced worldwide, are microorganisms of high scientific interest for health and the environment.
Finally, essential oils, complex and fragrant blends produced and extracted from numerous aromatic plants, are substances rich in properties widely employed for mind and body wellness, in cooking, in cosmetics, in perfumery and for the conservation of cultural heritage too.